Examining the various international transportation methods of goods in foreign trade is one of the essential steps in exporting a product from China and transporting it to the buyer country. In recent decades, with the expansion of transportation methods in foreign trade, export activity has flourished more and more in China. But in the meantime, choosing the most appropriate mode of transportation is important because it prevents harm to the interests of the owner of the goods.
In international trade, goods may cross one or more countries’ borders to reach its destination. Thus, international transportation refers to how a product starts from the origin and achieves the desired destination. Therefore, a series of international requirements and laws must be observed by the buyer or seller. However, in domestic transportation, only internal standards and procedures are considered.
Some factors such as how to pack, different shipping methods, consideration of international rules like Incoterms, and some other items are essential requirements that must be considered in international shipping and transportation. In this type of transportation, the intended shipment may be a product, package, letter, or any other item. As an exporter or importer, you require that you be proficient in international law, foreign trade terms, customary practices, and some other points. There are several methods in this regard, including road, air, rail and sea transport.
Austria is a member of European Union
The European Union is an economic-political union made up of 28 European countries. The origins of the European Union go back to the European Economic Community, formed in 1957 between six European countries. Since then, the European Union has grown with the addition of new members. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty established the current legal framework of the Union.
In 1999, the European Union introduced a single currency, the euro, which has replaced national currencies in 17 countries. The European Union, with 500 million citizens, produced 31% of the world’s GDP in 2007. 21 EU member states are members of NATO.
Activities of the European Union
The activities of the European Union cover most public policies, from economic policy to foreign policy, defense, agriculture, and trade. However, its range of power varies significantly in different areas. In some areas, the Union acts as a federation (for example, in monetary, agricultural, trade, environmental, and economic and social policy matters) and others as an international organization (for example, in foreign affairs).
Member countries of European Union
The European Union currently consists of 28 independent countries, collectively called member states, which are:
- United Kingdom
- Czech Republic
- the Netherlands
Six official candidates have already applied to join the union. Turkey, Iceland, Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia
Shipping from China to Austria
From beginning so far, shipping has been an important and challenging issue for all people who want to order their products abroad. Now a days, China has become a very important country and an economic hub in the world.
Almost all prominent companies around the world has a plant in this country. Therefore, it is not astonishing to sea that international transportation is very crucial in China. The major methods for shipping from China to Austria are as the following:
- Sea freight
- Air freight
It is better to know that China has great rail freight to Europe.
Sea freight (ocean freight) for shipping from China to Austria
Sea freight is one of the most preferred way, that many people choose sea freight for shipping from China. One of the most important reason is that the cost of this way is very reasonable compared to other modes of transportation. Some conditions are specific for sea freight that they are as the following:
- Goods are super large
- Goods are very heavy
- Goods are more than 200 kg
- Goods are in bad shape
The most massive volume of goods are transported by sea, and it is one of the most common international transportation methods. Half of the earth is covered by sea and oceans, and almost all countries of the world have access to open waters and seas. China is a great country which has access to most essential water gates globally, and a large number of the country’s products are exported through these routes . Meanwhile, the sea is also a perfect communication route for exporting goods from China to other countries like Austria. The most important advantages and disadvantages of maritime transport can be named as follows:
- Unlike other methods, the sea freight can be exported to most of the world.
- Compared to the land freight, it is the best method for long distances.
- Sea freight will usually take a long time for the goods to reach their destination.
- It usually costs less than the aerial method.
- In sea freight, all kinds of goods in different dimensions and scales can be exported.
- The dangers and natural disasters in this method are usually more significant.
Sea ports for shipping from China to Austria
If you want to use sea freight for shipping from China to Austria, you should know the seaports in both countries. The sea ports in Chia and Austria are:
|China sea Ports||Shanghai, Shenzhen, Ningbo, Guangzhou, Qingdao|
|Ports of Austria||Vienna, Krems, Enns, Linz|
Some important matters in sea freight for shipping from China to Austria
If you want to use sea freight for shipping from China to Austria, you must be familiar with some significant matter like F.C.L. and L.C.L. Briefly speaking, in F.C.L. a container belongs to one customer. But in L.C.L., goods occupy only some parts of the container, and the rest of it are occupied by goods of other customers. As it is obvious, F.C.L. is safer than L.C.L. because it belongs to one person, and it will open at the destination.
Another important matter in sea freight for shipping from China to Austria are the volume of the containers. There are different types of containers for sea freight, but 20ft and 40ft are the most significant.
- 20-foot container: The 20-foot container has dimensions of 2.5 x 6 meters with a height of 2.60 meters, which is used for storing goods and moving goods.
- 40-foot container: The 40-foot container has dimensions of 12 x 2.5 with a height of 2.60 meters. This container is the most widely used in the transportation industry compared to other types.
The cost of sea freight in shipping from China to Austria
The cost of sea freight for shipping from China to Austria in 40ft containers are:
|Shanghai||120 USD||120 USD||126 USD||140 USD|
|Hong Kong||150 USD||140 USD||130 USD||130 USD|
|Tianjin||170 USD||160 USD||122 USD||125 USD|
|Shenzhen||130 USD||140 USD||127 USD||135 USD|
|Ningbo||155 USD||168 USD||135 USD||140 USD|
|Guangzhou||140 USD||154 USD||120 USD||155 USD|
How long does it take for sea freight from China to Austria?
Sea freight is one important mode in the international transportation. Although it takes time to reach the destination, the cost of sea freight is very affordable, therefore, many people prefer to use this mode of transportation. Sea freight for shipping from China to Austria takes 20 to 30 business days
Air freight for shipping from China to Austria
Air freight is the fastest way to transport goods from China to Austria or all over the world. Therefore, it is obvious that the cost of shipping is expensive. But if you have the following conditions, the air freight is the best way for shipping from China to Austria or any other countries in the world:
- Goods are less than 200 kg
- Goods have normal shape
- Goods are fragile
As air freight is very fast, if you are in a hurry and you want to take your products in a shortest time, it is the best way to be selected. Another pints to be mentioned is that air freight is very flexible, and there are various flights to be chosen in goods transportation.
Air freight was created with the airplane’s invention, and it is a new method compared to other methods. There are usually air cargo terminals in every country, which are also referred to as cargo airports. It indicates that air cargo is considered very crucial in air transportation. There are several cargo and export airports in China, one of which is Shanghai international airport. Among the various modes of transportation, the air freight is less commonly used. This method has advantages as follows:
- The goods arrive at the destination as soon as possible.
- The safety of goods against accidents is very high.
- The possibility of spoilage or damage to the product is minimized.
- Some goods cannot be transported by air or freight.
- The problems of this method is usually less than other methods.
It has only one disadvantage that is the cost of air freight is higher than other ways.
The international air ports for shipping from China to Austria
If you want to use air freight for shipping from China to Austria, you should know the international airports in both countries. The sea ports in Chia and Austria are:
|Chinese Airports||Shanghai, Hong Kong ,Shenzhen, Tianjin, Guangzhou|
|Airports of Austria||Vienna Airport, Salzburg Airport, Innsbruck Airport, Graz Airport, Linz Airport, Klagenfurt Airport|
The cost of air freight for shipping from China to Austria
The cost of air freight for shipping from China to Austria are:
|Vienna Airport||Salzburg Airport||Innsbruck Airport||Graz Airport||Linz Airport||Klagenfurt Airport|
|Shanghai||3 USD||1.5 USD||3 USD||1.5 USD||3 USD||1.5 USD|
|Hong Kong||1.5 USD||2 USD||2 USD||2 USD||2 USD||2 USD|
|Shenzhen||2 USD||3 USD||1.5 USD||3 USD||1.5 USD||3 USD|
|Tianjin||1 USD||2.5 USD||2 USD||2 USD||2 USD||1 USD|
|Ningbo||3 USD||1 USD||1 USD||1.5 USD||3 USD||2 USD|
|Guangzhou||2.5 USD||3 USD||3 USD||2 USD||2 USD||2.5 USD|
This price is for one kilogram! If you goods are more than 50 kg, a discount will be devoted to you, and it is also true for goods more than 100 kg, 150 kg, 200 kg and so on!
How long does it take for air freight from China to Austria?
Air freight is very fast, and two methods are offered by almost all companies to take the goods. They are express and classic modes. The express is more expensive than classic modes, but it takes less time. The express shipping from China to Austria is 1 to 3 business day. The classic air freight for shipping from China to Austria takes 4 to 8 business days.
Rail freight for shipping from China to Austria
As we mentioned in the previous section, China has well infrastructure for rail freight for shipping from China to Austria and other countries in Europe. Rail freight is one of the best modes of transport, and many countries use it because of the unique benefits of this ideal method. The advantages of this method of transportation include the following:
- Very high safety compared to other transportation systems
According to statistics from the last ten years, the rail freight system has suffered the least losses. This figure was 24 times less than the road transport system. You have rarely seen a train crash in the news. It shows the extraordinary security of this transportation system.
- Low energy consumption
One of the essential benefits of rail is low energy consumption and thus maintaining environmental health. For a long time, the fuel of locomotives used in trains was the steam system, which was later changed to coal. Today, however, GM locomotives convert chemical energy from combustible fuels and oxygen into thermal energy.Low energy consumption is one of the benefits of rail transportation.
- Comfort and convenience of passengers
Many travelers are looking for the most convenient transportation systems. Trains are one of the most convenient transportation options because they run at a relative and balanced speed. Passengers stay in private compartments during the trip, and no one will disturb them. However, even on airplanes, the presence of different people next to passengers can be a little annoying.
- No stopping along the way
One of the most unique benefits of rail freight is that the train does not stop along the way. If you travel by bus or other road vehicles, in addition to worrying about accidents, you will often see traffic jams and vehicle stops.
Despite its advantages and capabilities, the rail freight system is reasonably priced, and it can be used by all businesses. Usually, due to the high cost of air transportation, only high-income businesses can benefit from it. Freight and passenger trains offer the most cost-effective services.
- Reduce transit costs
Another advantage of rail freight is the cost-effectiveness. The rail transportation system is the second method humans use to move their products after the road transportation system. Usually, freight transportation by ship and plane will incur high costs, which the rail transport system has significantly reduced.
- Transit of all kinds of dangerous goods
Have you ever wondered how dangerous goods such as fossil fuels, flammable materials, etc., are transported? One of the ideal and cost-effective methods is to use the rail transportation system to transport many dangerous goods.
- Dedicated freight wagons
Another advantage of rail freight over land or sea transport is the presence of special freight wagons. Each of these wagons is for carrying a type of cargo.
- Flat wagons: These wagons are used to carry a variety of machinery and bulky goods. Goods that are long and cannot be moved with other transportation systems.
- Tank wagons: These wagons are made in two types of two-axle and four-axle and are used in transporting fuel and various liquids. These wagons are designed so that flammable liquids and fuels such as gasoline can never escape.
- Refrigerated Wagons: One of the best benefits of rail transportation is perishable transport products such as dairy and vegetables over long distances. These wagons are equipped with an automatic cooling system and are adjusted according to the outside temperature.
What are the benefits of rail freight?
- Reduce the need to build highways and highways
Imagine a large number of people in the community enjoying the benefits of rail transportation. It reduces the need for people to use road vehicles and prevents the construction of multiple highways.
- Possibility of extensive transit of goods between neighboring countries
Expansion of rail lines between neighboring countries can significantly increase the transit of goods between these countries. Goods such as oil and gas and fuels could not be delivered by land other than the pipeline. Many European countries use the rail transport system to transit goods between them, significantly reducing transit costs. In addition to lowering transit costs, this also helps maintain environmental health.
- Increase the security of carrying military equipment
Some developed countries have taken full advantage of rail freight to transport military equipment. In such a way that by launching underground trains, they transport military weapons. Of course, even in times of war, this transportation system can be used for quick reactions.
International shipping agent for shipping from China
Carrier and forwarder companies are two types of international freight forwarding companies, and many traders and merchants usually export their goods from China by these companies. A carrier is a shipping company that, by concluding a contract with the sender or exporter of the goods, undertakes to deliver the cargo to the destination.
Usually, the carrier companies themselves own or lease the means of transport. These companies include air, rail, sea, and other modes of transportation. Carrier companies supervise and carry out various shipping goods stages, including loading, delivering goods to the recipient at the destination, customs procedures, and some other cases. Therefore, their scope of services and their responsibility are higher than that of forwarding companies. Some international companies for shipping from China to Austria are:
- DHL Express
- DB Schencker
- United Parcel Service, Inc.
- Blue Dart Company
- Royal mail
- On Trace Inc.
- TFL International
- Laser ship Inc.
- S.F. Holdings
- ZTO Express ( Cayman)
- Yunda Holdings
- YAMTO Holdings
- B Post SA/NY
- Japan Post Group
Forwarder and carrier companies has some difference with each other. Forwarder companies are legal entities or even some people who receive a certain amount money from the sender or exporter of the goods and, in return, provide sending of the desired goods. The forwarder is a kind of intermediary. An intermediary in which one side is an exporter of goods and the other side is a transport and shipping company.
In this method, the forwarder is usually not responsible for transporting the cargo, and therefore, the risk will be higher than the carrier method. However, the methods of transporting goods in this way are often cheaper than the previous method. Forwarder, unlike its carrier companies, does not own or rent the means of transporting goods, and this is done by the transport companies.
Why is Incoterms important in shipping from China to Austria?
Incoterms means International Commercial Terms, which is a combination of the three words International Commercial Terms that will be reviewed and republished. Incoterms were first developed in 1936, and on January 1, 2011, the latest version, called Incoterms 2010, was released.
Incoterms’ purpose is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most common trade terms in foreign trade, which eliminates or at least significantly reduces the diversity of interpretations of these terms in different countries. On the other hand, buyers and sellers who are parties to the contract may often be unaware of the country’s business practices, leading to misconceptions or disputes, lawsuits, and a waste of time and money.
The process of international shipping from China to Austria
- First, the goods subject to the transaction are shipped from China.
- They reach to the border and customs of China.
- Goods are loaded on the primary vehicle, and international transportation is performed.
- The goods reach the border and customs of Austria.
- The goods are cleared for import.
- They are shipped to the buyer’s warehouse inside Austria.
Customs clearance for shipping from China to Austria
Customs clearance is one vital process in transportation of goods from China to Austria. Because each country has some rules and restrictions that must be considered in shipping from China. In this way some documents are necessary, they are as the following:
- Bill of Landing
- Letter of Credit
- Licenses and Certificates ( if it is needed)
- A commercial invoice
Besides, goods need H.S code that must be recognized for shipping from China to Austria.
What is HS code for shipping from China to Austria?
HS Code or Harmonized System is a standardization function of product identification and classification control that is designed by customs according to tax policies, pricing, budgeting, and economics. In other words, the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System is a standard numerical method for classifying goods, also called the HS code.
This classification is designed by the WCO (World Customs Organization) as a multi-purpose international designation for products and describes the type of goods shipped. Today, customs officers must use the HS code to calculate goods entering customs for import or export, customs duties, and customs costs.
Tariff and non-tariff measures include international trade regulations and other types of foreign economic activity and the maintenance of customs statistics. Each HS CU has its numeric code. This code consists of 10 digits; all codes are divided into 21 sections and 97 groups. The 10-digit numeric code of the product has the following structure (according to the HS code):
- XX Section
- XXXX main group
- XXXXXX Main Subgroup (HS WTO)
- XXXXXXXX goods
Advantages of using HS code
The HS code is shared among 200 countries around the world, and it specifies the exact product category. Its use will help in compiling trade statistics of countries, laws of countries of origin and destination, and views on controlled goods.
HS code also for monitoring, updating and optimizing controlled goods, internal taxes, rules of origin, trade policies, shipping statistics, shipping tariffs, consolidation of national accounts, quota control, price monitoring, traffic statistics And economic research as well as a wide variety of analyzes are used. Other requirements for using HS code in transactions include the following:
- Reduce international trade costs
Since there is no need for a translator to send and receive international shipments, this code alone acts as a common international language for sending and receiving goods.
- Tariff cost identification
Identify the cost of import tariff on goods to the destination country and the cost of export tariff on goods from the country of origin
- Reduce delay costs
Choosing the right HS code can help customs officers in the process of classifying and warehousing cargo and speed up the process. While not choosing the correct HS code for the goods in a shipment can make customs officers sensitive to your shipment and include fines. It also delays the process of warehousing and clearance of goods and imposes fines on it.
The importance of having a bill of lading for shipping from China to Austria
The bill of lading refers to a contract between the sender and the carrier. The bill of lading, which states that the goods have been delivered by the owner of the goods to the person in charge of transporting the goods, in other words, has the role of a receipt of the goods.
Despite the bill of lading, any claim made by the parties contrary to its contents has no validity because all the conditions have been approved by the parties before the bill of lading is issued. In short, we can say that:
- The bill of lading is the reason for ownership.
- The document bill of lading is negotiable.
- The bill of lading must be unconditional unless otherwise agreed upon between the parties.
Terms and conditions of the bill of lading
In issuing the bill of lading according to the rules and regulations, senders, receivers must also follow the rules. Some of these rules are as follows:
- Exporters (transport company or institution):
- Preparation or completion of the contents of the bill of lading, in particular, taking into account the freight equal to the shipping contract;
- Issuance the bill of lading from the legal origin of the company to other parts of the country;
- Obtaining a pass for traffic loads and also issuing a bill of lading for them;
- Issuance of bill of lading covered by liability insurance (civil liability of carriers)
- Announcing the load details and the exact address of the place of loading;
- Revealing the details of the consignee and the exact address of the place of unloading;
- Announcement of product specifications in terms of quantity, weight, height, length, width and type of packaging
- Timely loading and dispatching of the fleet to prevent possible damages.
- Timely evacuation of the fleet to avoid paying the stop fee;
- Payment of the total fare stated in the bill of lading issued by the company or institution of the beneficiary transport of the truck, van, or trailer carrying the goods
What are the types of a bill of lading for shipping from Austria?
A bill of lading is required for importing; therefore, it is necessary to issue the bill of lading through all routes and cargo transportation by any means. The types of bill of lading are as follows:
- Sea bill of lading: Shipping
- Air waybill: Carriage by plane
- Railway bill of lading: transport by train
List of prohibited good to import to Austria
According to the government rules in Austria, some items are restricted to be imported as the following:
- Bonsai plants, Citrus and grapevines
- food products,
- Atlantic red tuna from Beliz, Panama or Hondura
- Toys and games containing copper sulfate
- Items includes flexible metal
- Asbestos Fibers
- Rubber eraser similar to food
- Nutritional Supplemets
- All products contain Biocide dimethylfumarate
These restriction are more serious when it comes to animals, plants, and public security. All these items are prohibited from EU and non EU countries.
Duty free items
e pay attention to this matter, if you have some items from China or other countries that they are for personal use, you don’t need to pay any duties or tax. But if you want to import from China to Austria in a large amount, you are obliged to pay the duties and taxes.
What is door to door service for shipping from China to Austria?
Door to door is a unique service which is offered by shipping company. In this service, all the customer must do is to go to the company and concludes a contract by the freight forwarder and pay the fee.
All responsibilities are by freight forwarder, from taking the goods from the warehouse in China to deliver them in preferred destination in Austria. As concluding, a specific number is given to the customer. The customer can go to the site of the company and enter the number. All information will be appeared in the website of the company, and the customer can see the goods are in which steps!
If you need an impressive rate and competitive offer for Door to Door Rail and Trucking service from China to European countries, please contact our Sale Team.
the air freight is the fastest shipping solution from China, but it is expensive!
if goods are shipped by express 1 to 3 days, if goods are shipped by classic mode, it takes 4 to 8 days.
it depends on the size and weight of the goods. if goods are more than 200 kg , the sea freight is the best way.